Assignment: NUR 6501: Case Study Analysis
Module 7 Assignment: Case Study Analysis
An understanding of the factors surrounding women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders can be critically important to disease diagnosis and treatment in these areas. This importance is magnified by the fact that some diseases and disorders manifest differently based on the sex of the patient.
Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond the human systems involved. The impact of patient characteristics, as well as racial and ethnic variables, can also have an important impact.
An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in systems based on these characteristics is a critical step in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.
In this Assignment, you examine a case study and analyze the symptoms presented. You identify the elements that may be factored in the diagnosis, and you explain the implications to patient health.
By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific case study scenario for this Case Study Assignment. Please see the Course Announcements section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)
In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following:
- The factors that affect fertility (STDs).
- Why inflammatory markers rise in STD/PID.
- Why prostatitis and infection happens. Also, explain the causes of a systemic reaction.
- Why a patient would need a splenectomy after a diagnosis of ITP.
- Anemia and the different kinds of anemia (i.e., micro and macrocytic).
Day 7 of Week 10
Submit your Case Study Analysis Assignment by Day 7 of Week 10
Reminder: The College of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references.
The sample paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available at https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/templates).
All papers submitted must use this formatting.
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NUR 6501 : Case Study Analysis
Health is a state of full physical and emotional well-being (Sterba et al., 2017). Healthcare transpires to help individuals maintain an ideal form of health. These individual’s health can be affected by infections if not cared for well. Women and men fight infection differently. Females are better set to fight any infection than men, and their bodies suffer lesser collateral harm when an infection hits. These individuals can also be affected by hematologic disorders that involve blood and include issues with the red and white blood cells, bone marrow, platelets, spleen, and lymph nodes. Females have low hematocrit as compared to men. It has been revealed that women have an average hematocrit level of approximately 12 percent lower than men. It is perhaps a direct effect of the sex hormones, both androgens, and estrogen, on erythropoiesis. This paper will explore on the factors affecting fertility (STDs), why the inflammatory markers rise in the STD, and why prostatitis and the infection occur, explaining the cause of the systemic reaction. It will also highlight why patient presented would require a splenectomy after diagnosing ITP and, finally, anemia and its different kinds.
Factors Affecting Fertility (STDs)
Numerous STDs factors may make conceiving harder. Conceiving requires healthy sperms, consistent intercourse around ovulation time, quality eggs, and a healthy pelvic environment. Occasionally an issue in only one of these areas might lead to a delay in getting pregnant. Chlamydia and gonorrhea are some of the STDs that may cause infertility (Tsevat et al., 2017). The patient in the case may be having these illnesses following her complaints. Chlamydia may cause the infection of fallopian tube infection without the symptoms. The PID and the “silent” infection in the upper genital tract may cause long damage to the uterus, fallopian tubes, and the surrounding tissues leading to infertility. Most women affected with gonorrhea or chlamydia mostly lack symptoms. When it comes to gonorrhea, it may lead to key problems, like infertility in the women if untreated. It may spread to the uterus and fallopian tubes, causing the pelvic inflammatory illness that might result in the scarring of tubes, more risk of pregnancy problems, and infertility.
Reason for the Inflammatory Markers to Rise in STD/PID.
Inflammatory markers involve C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, ferritin, and some severe phase proteins. However, only the first three are usually referred to as the inflammatory markers (Mozos et al., 2017). The reason why inflammatory markers rise in STD, in this case, is because the white blood cell count is high, indicating that pelvic inflammatory illness is more serious. Any infection’s inflammatory response is a sign of infection. As well, chemical and physical barriers form the first line of defense when the body is attacked. The skin has a thick layer of dead cells in the epidermis that cause the physical barrier. The episodic shedding of the epidermis removes the microbes. Mucous membranes form the mucus that usually traps the microbes.
Why Prostatitis and Infection occur Explaining the Cause of the Systemic Reaction
Acute bacterial prostatitis is regularly triggered by common bacteria strains. Infection may begin when the bacteria in the urine leak to an individual’s prostate. The antibiotics are used to treat the disease. In case they do not eliminate bacteria, prostatitis may recur or be hard to treat (Delcaru et al., 2016).
When the inflammation spreads from an organ’s contained area to the rest of the body’s organ systems, it is identified as a systemic reaction. Inflammation may be from allergies, toxins, or infections. Prostate massage must not be done in the patient with alleged acute prostatitis as it might induce sepsis. Sepsis from the prostatitis is rare but can occur in an immunocompromised patient.
Why a Patient would require a Splenectomy after Diagnosis of ITP
Splenectomy is an active treatment for the steroid-refractory or the dependent immune thrombocytopenia. With the beginning of therapeutic replacements like rituximab, splenectomy use has failed and is usually kept for the patients who miss numerous medical treatments. In individuals with ITP, the system of immune treats the platelets as foreign, destroying them completely. The spleen is accountable for eliminating injured platelets, and thus removal of the spleen may help keep extra platelets moving in the body.
Anemia and its Different Kinds (i.e., micro and macrocytic)
Anemia is a disorder in which an individual lacks sufficient healthy red blood cells to transport appropriate oxygen to the body’s tissues. Anemia may make the patient feel weak and tired. There are numerous anemia forms, each caused by different sources. Anemia may be long-term or temporary, ranging from mild to severe. One type of anemia is Microtic anemia
Microcytic anemia is the incidence of small, frequently hypochromic, red blood cells in the peripheral blood smear characterized by the low MCV. The iron deficit remains a common cause of this kind of anemia.
Another type is macrocytic anemia. This type of anemia means that red blood cells similarly have low hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein that carries oxygen around the body (Cakmakli et al., 2019). Deficits in vitamin B-12 or folate mostly cause macrocytic anemia, which is sometimes known as vitamin deficiency anemia. Hypochromic microcytic anemia is another kind of anemia where circulating RBCs are lesser than usual RBCs size and have a reduced red color. This type of anemia is caused due to distraction of iron in diets because of a reduced amount of iron in the diet, pathology of small intestines such as sprue and the enduring diarrhea, deficit of vitamin C in the diet, and gastrectomy.
Woman’s and man’s health is important. Health may be affected by infections and hematologic disorders. As part of infections, chlamydia and gonorrhea are some of the STDs that may cause infertility. The inflammatory markers rise in STD because the white blood cell count is high, indicating that pelvic inflammatory illness is more serious. Acute bacterial prostatitis is regularly triggered by common bacteria strains. Infection may begin when the bacteria in the urine leak to an individual’s prostate. When the inflammation spreads from an organ’s contained area to the rest of the body’s organ systems, it is identified as a systemic reaction. Inflammation may be from allergies, toxins, or infections.
Splenectomy is an active treatment such as steroid-refractory. In individuals with ITP, the systems of immune treat the platelets as foreign destroying them. The spleen is accountable for eliminating injured platelets, and thus spleen removal may help keep extra platelets moving in the body. Anemia is a disorder in which an individual lacks sufficient healthy red blood cells to carry appropriate oxygen to the body’s tissues. Some kinds of anemia include Micro, Macrocytic, and Hypochromic microcytic anemias, among others.
Cakmakli, H. F., Torres, R. J., Menendez, A., Yalcin-Cakmakli, G., Porter, C. C., Puig, J. G., & Jinnah, H. A. (2019). Macrocytic anemia in Lesch–Nyhan disease and its variants. Genetics in Medicine, 21(2), 353-360. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41436-018-0053-1
Delcaru, C., Alexandru, I., Podgoreanu, P., Grosu, M., Stavropoulos, E., Chifiriuc, M. C., & Lazar, V. (2016). Microbial biofilms in urinary tract infections and prostatitis: etiology, pathogenicity, and combat strategies. Pathogens, 5(4), 65.
Mozos, I., Malainer, C., Horbańczuk, J., Gug, C., Stoian, D., Luca, C. T., & Atanasov, A. G. (2017). Inflammatory markers for arterial stiffness in cardiovascular diseases. Frontiers in immunology, 8, 1058. Retrieved from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01058/full
Sterba, K. R., Zapka, J., Armeson, K. E., Shirai, K., Buchanan, A., Day, T. A., & Alberg, A. J. (2017). Physical and emotional well-being and support in newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patient-caregiver dyads. Journal of psychosocial oncology, 35(6), 646-665. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07347332.2017.1323817
Tsevat, D. G., Wiesenfeld, H. C., Parks, C., & Peipert, J. F. (2017). Sexually transmitted diseases and infertility. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 216(1), 1-9.